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Torsion Springs Technical Information


Technical Information for Custom Torsion Spring Designs

The section below gives technical information on torsion spring designs; including different body shapes we are capable of producing, single torsion or double torsion, torsion spring load and deflection requirements, wire diameter ranges we are capable of using, spring dimensional images and other considerations that might have an impact on the torsion spring used in your application.

Technical illustrations provided by the “Spring Manufacturers Institute Handbook Of Spring Design”

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Design Assistance for Your Custom Helical Torsion Spring

Springs are a more technically engineered product than some people realize. Industrial Spring has been manufacturing custom torsion springs for our customers for more than 50 years. We use Advanced Spring Design software that is based on the Spring Manufacturers Institute Handbook of Spring Design to assist you in achieving the best design to work in your specific application. Just contact us at 816-741-6073 and we will be glad to help.

Common Torsion Spring Design Terms

The following diagram shows how to specify leg position and corresponding load requirements for a torsion spring.

Load and deflection requirements for torsion springs include:

Industrial Spring Wire Diameter Capability for Torsion Springs

Whatever your torsion spring design needs, Industrial Spring has the capability to produce your part. We have a wide range of CNC and mechanical coiling machines that can manufacturer custom torsion springs with wire diameters as small as 0.015” or as large as 0.500” (0.381 mm to 12.7 mm) and any size wire in between.

Torsion Spring Materials

Industrial Spring manufactures custom torsion springs from all types of material. The most common material types for torsion springs are music wire, hard drawn, stainless steel (type 302, type 316 and type 17-7 PH), oil tempered, chrome silicon, and phosphor bronze. We also produce torsion springs in some of the more exotic types of material such as C276, Inconel 600 & 750, Monel, Beryllium Copper and others.

We stock many of these material types in many different diameters in order to provide our customers with the shortest lead times possible.

Some Common Torsion Spring Materials Include:

You can learn about the suitable uses of each material type in the Properties of Materials chart.

Industrial Spring’s Capability for Different Torsion Spring Body Shapes

Industrial Spring manufactures two different body shapes for torsion springs.

Determining standard position & direction of wind terminology for torsion springs

The torsion springs shown in the diagrams below show some of the common terminology that can sometimes make verbally describing a torsion spring difficult. Fig. 1 shows how to determining the direction of wind for a torsion spring. Specifying a torsion spring as being either left hand wound or right hand wound vs. being coiled clockwise or counter clockwise is the standard way to specify the direction of coiling.

The diagram below (Fig. 2) shows some of the common ways that legs are bent on a torsion spring and the corresponding terminology for specifying free position of the spring and the geometry of how the leg is bent. All of the springs shown below are coiled right hand.

It is a common design requirement for the positional relationship of the hooks on an extension spring to be at a particular angle, inline or at 90° to each other, etc. This is sometimes required to assist with the spring being easily installed in the final application. Industrial Spring employs mechanical and laser probe devices on our equipment to insure these relationships are maintained to our customer’s specifications.

Considerations for Different Types of Ends on Torsion Springs

Some of the more common end configurations for helical torsion springs are shown below in the Spring Manufacturers Institute diagram of Common Helical Torsion Spring End Configurations. Industrial Spring is a torsion spring manufacturer with modern computer controlled forming machinery and production techniques that allow for an infinite variety of torsion spring end shapes.

Torsion Spring Dimensions and Specifications Checklist

There are other, more complex design considerations that we are capable of producing and assisting with when a standard simple torsion spring isn’t the right answer for you application.

As a leading torsion spring supplier, we use state-of-the-art CNC coiling machines with in-line monitoring cameras and laser positional sensors. Our in-line cameras and positional sensors assure you that your torsion springs are being produced to your specific requirements.

Contact Us Today To Learn How We Can Meet Your Torsion Spring Production Needs.


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